A study of muslim phobia in the united states

Toggle display of website navigation Voice: How did it get this bad? July 5,7: About two dozen members of the group protested in front of the Islamic Association of North Texas mosque, as counter-protesters demonstrated across the street.

A study of muslim phobia in the united states

In German, Islamophobie fear and Islamfeindlichkeit hostility are used. The Scandinavian term Muslimhat literally means "hatred of Muslims".

Islamophobia reintroduces and reaffirms a global racial structure through which resource distribution disparities are maintained and extended.

In the Runnymede report, Islamophobia was defined as "an outlook or world-view involving an unfounded dread and dislike of Muslims, which results in practices of exclusion and discrimination.

The symposium proposed a definition of Islamophobia which rejected the idea of Islamophobia as being the product of closed and open views of Islam, and focused on Islamophobia as performative which problematized Muslim agency and identity.

The symposium was an early attempt to bring insights from critical race theory, postcolonial and decolonial thought to bear on the question of Islamophobia. Nonetheless, he argued that the term is here to stay, and that it is important to define it precisely. As with parallel concepts like homophobia or xenophobia, Islamophobia connotes a broader set of negative attitudes or emotions directed at individuals of groups because of perceived membership in a defined category.

New racism Several scholars consider Islamophobia to be a form of xenophobia or racism.

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A article in Journal of Sociology defines Islamophobia as anti-Muslim racism and a continuation of anti- Asiananti-Turkic and anti-Arab racism. Jocelyne Cesari writes that "academics are still debating the legitimacy of the term and questioning how it differs from other terms such as racism, anti-Islamism, anti-Muslimness, and anti-Semitism.

Diane Frost defines Islamophobia as anti-Muslim feeling and violence based on "race" or religion. He writes that the target of hostility in the modern era is not Islam and its tenets as much as it is Muslims, suggesting that a more accurate term would be "Anti-Muslimism".

He also states that strains and types of prejudice against Islam and Muslims vary across different nations and cultures, which is not recognized in the Runnymede analysis, which was specifically about Muslims in Britain. The experiment showed that their definition provided a tool for accurate differentiation.

Robin Richardson writes that in the English version of the book the word was not translated as "Islamophobia" but rather as "feelings inimical to Islam".

Muslims and Islam: Key findings in the U.S. and around the world

Dahou Ezzerhouni has cited several other uses in French as early asand from to For some, the Muslim is the natural and irreconcilable enemy of the Christian and the European; Islam is the negation of civilization, and barbarism, bad faith and cruelty are the best one can expect from the Mohammedans.

Because radical Islam was a new topic, so was the hate towards Islam, which created the term "Islamaphobia. Islam is seen as a monolithic bloc, static and unresponsive to change.

It is seen as separate and "other". It does not have values in common with other cultures, is not affected by them and does not influence them. It is seen as inferior to the West.

It is seen as barbaric, irrational, primitive, and sexist. It is seen as violent, aggressive, threatening, supportive of terrorismand engaged in a clash of civilizations. Criticisms made of "the West" by Muslims are rejected out of hand.

Hostility towards Islam is used to justify discriminatory practices towards Muslims and exclusion of Muslims from mainstream society. Anti-Muslim hostility is seen as natural and normal. Identity politics It has been suggested that Islamophobia is closely related to identity politicsand gives its adherents the perceived benefit of constructing their identity in opposition to a negative, essentialized image of Muslims.

This occurs in the form of self-righteousness, assignment of blame and key identity markers. It views culture as an entity that is highly abstracted from the practices of daily life and therefore represents the illusion that there exists a spirit of the people.

This formulation leads to the homogenisation of cultural identity and the ascription of particular values and proclivities onto minority cultural groups.

Even cancer has a better public image than Muslim-Americans. How did it get this bad?

She views this as an ontological trap that hinders the perception of culture as something "materially situated in the living practices of the everyday, situated in time-space and not based in abstract projections of what constitutes either a particular tradition or culture.

Examples include Pakistani and Algerian migrants in Britain and France respectively. Matti Bunzl has argued that there are important differences between Islamophobia and antisemitism.

A study of muslim phobia in the united states

While antisemitism was a phenomenon closely connected to European nation-building processes, he sees Islamophobia as having the concern of European civilization as its focal point.

However, she argues against the use of the term Islamophobia, since, in her opinion, it attracts unwarranted attention to an underlying racist current.

In addition, both discourses make use of, among other rhetorical instruments, "religious imperatives" supposedly "proven" by religious sources, and conspiracy theories.

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The differences between Islamophobia and antisemitism consist of the nature of the perceived threats to the "Christian West". Muslims are perceived as "inferior" and as a visible "external threat", while on the other hand, Jews are perceived as "omnipotent" and as an invisible "internal threat".

However, Schiffer and Wagner also note that there is a growing tendency to view Muslims as a privileged group that constitute an "internal threat" and that this convergence between the two discources makes "it more and more necessary to use findings from the study of anti-Semitism to analyse Islamophobia".

Schiffer and Wagner conclude, The achievement in the study of anti-Semitism of examining Jewry and anti-Semitism separately must also be transferred to other racisms, such as Islamophobia. We do not need more information about Islam, but more information about the making of racist stereotypes in general.A small group of foundations and wealthy donors serve as the lifeblood of the Islamophobia network in the United States.

They provide critical funding to a clutch of right-wing think tanks and misinformation experts who peddle hate and fear of Muslims and Islam – . In the United States, where immigrants from Latin America and Asia dominate and Muslims are a comparatively small fraction, xenophobia and Islamophobia may be more easily separable.

Classism is another overlapping factor in some nations. Islamophobia is controversy term that refers to perjudice and discrimination of Islam and muslim. It become more popular after attack of 11/9. Now, i’ll tell you about 11/9 issues, which is the series of 4 suicided attack organised by Al-Qaeda on the United states in 11 of september When we first conducted a study of Muslim Americans in , we estimated that there were million Muslims of all ages (including million adults) in the U.S.

By , the number of Muslims had grown to million (including million adults). A misconception about Islam is that Islam is that Islam is tied to terrorism. A misconception about Islam is that Islam is that islam promotes violence. The leading cause for Islamophobia is usually misinformation or total lack of information based on the religion.

A new study of political attitudes in the United States offers stunning evidence that most Americans censor themselves, except among people they regard as like-minded, on a bundle of sensitive topics: immigration and immigrants; race and racism; gay, lesbian and gender issues; and Islam and Muslims.

Islamophobia - Wikipedia