Acid rain case

Shop What is Acid Rain? Simply put, it means rain that is acidic in nature due to the presence of certain pollutants in the air due to cars and industrial processes.

Acid rain case

Velvet bean is an annual climbing vine that grows m in height. It is indigenous to tropical regions, especially Africa, India, and the West Indies.

Its flowers are white to dark purple and hang in long clusters. The plant also produces clusters of pods which contain seeds known as mucuna beans. The seed pods are covered with reddish-orange hairs that are readily dislodged and can cause intense irritation to the skin.

The species name "pruriens" from the Latin, "itching sensation" refers to the results to be had from contact with the seed pod hairs. It is still grown as a food crop by the Ketchi indigenous people in Guatemala; the bean is cooked as a vegetable.

In Brazil the seed has been used internally for Parkinson's disease, edema, impotence, intestinal gas, and worms.

Acid rain case

It is considered a diuretic, nerve tonic, and aphrodisiac. Externally it is applied to ulcers. Velvet bean has a long history of use in Indian Ayurvedic medicine, where it is used for worms, dysentery, diarrhea, snakebite, sexual debility, cough, tuberculosis, impotence, rheumatic disorders, muscular pain, sterility, gout, menstrual disorders, diabetes, and cancer.

In India it is considered an aphrodisiac, menstrual promoter, uterine stimulant, nerve tonic, diuretic, and blood purifier. They are also rich in novel alkaloids, saponins, and sterols. Concentrations of serotonin also have been found in the pod, leaf and fruit. The stinging hairs of the seed pods contain the phytochemical mucunain, which is responsible for causing skin irritation and itch.

Acid Rain | Definition of Acid Rain by Merriam-Webster

The main plant chemicals found in velvet bean include: Traditionally, velvet bean has been used as a nerve tonic for nervous system disorders.

Due to the high concentration of L-dopa in the seeds, it has been studied for its possible use in Parkinson's disease.

Parkinson's disease is a common age-related neurodegenerative disorder affecting more than four million people worldwide.

It is associated with progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in specific areas in the brain. Dopamine does not cross the blood-brain barrier and therefore cannot be used directly as a treatment.

However, L-dopa levodopa does gain access to the brain-where it is converted to dopamine. There are two controversies surrounding side-effects of the current pharmaceutical supplementation of L-dopa.

Over the long term, supplemented L-dopa appears to lose its effectiveness. A second area of controversy questions whether L-dopa is toxic to dopamine neurons; there is little evidence, though, to support this statement. Velvet bean is now being considered as an alternative to the pharmaceutical medication levodopa.

In one case study it was given to a Parkinson's patient for 12 years instead of the pharmaceutical L-dopa medication.

It was found to slow the progression of Parkinson's symptoms such as tremors, rigidity, slurring, drooling, and balanceand to have none of the side-effects of the current pharmaceutical L-dopa. Numerous in vivo studies also have been conducted in rats and humans.

In one human study, the bean powder was given to 60 patients 26 previously treated with L-dopa and 34 had never taken L-dopa. There were statistically significant reductions of Parkinson's symptoms in all study subjects. In addition, a U. These studies all validate the traditional use of the plant for diabetes.

In other studies a decoction of the leaf reduced total cholesterol in rats; the seed had the same effect. The root, fruit, leaf, and seed has shown significant in vivo antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, pain-relieving, and fever reducing activities in various clinical research with animals.

Traditionally the seed has been used by indigenous peoples throughout the world for snakebite and several in vivo studies validate this traditional use. In rats, a water extract of the seed inhibited venom-induced blood and coagulation alterations, and reduced lethality of the venom.

Acid rain case

The antivenin effect of velvet bean is thought to be due to an immune mechanism, as proteins in the seed were documented to raise antibodies against the venom. Velvet bean has a long history of traditional use in Brazil and India as an aphrodisiac.

Clinical studies in India have validated that the plant does indeed have aphrodisiac activity. It also has reported with anabolic and growth hormone stimulant properties.

The anabolic effect of the seed is due to its ability to increase testosterone. Ina U. Research cited in the patent indicated that the high levels of L-dopa in mucuna seed were converted to dopamine which stimulated the release of growth hormone by the pituitary gland.Acid rain usually forms high in the clouds where sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides react with water, oxygen, and oxidants.

this mixture forms a mild solution of sulfuric acid and nitric acid. Sunlight increases the rate of most of these reactions. Acid rain is a broad term used to describe a precipitation, as rain, snow, or sleet, containing relatively high concentrations of acid-forming chemicals, as the pollutants from coal smoke, chemical manufacturing, and smelting, that have been released into the atmosphere and combined with water vapor: harmful to the environment.

Definition "Acid rain" is a popular term referring to the deposition of a mixture from wet (rain, snow, sleet, fog, cloudwater, and dew) and dry (acidifying particles and gases) acidic components. The Problem and the Cleanup Acid mine drainage is a global problem.

In the eastern United States alone, AMD from coal mines has adversely impacted fisheries associated with over 13, kilometers (8, miles) of streams in Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Ohio, and Maryland. The causes of acid rain, how acid rain affects our environment and our health, and what regulatory actions have been put in place to reduce the pollutants that cause acid rain.

Velvet bean is an annual climbing vine that grows m in height. It is indigenous to tropical regions, especially Africa, India, and the West Indies.

Acid rain - Wikipedia