However, much has happened since it went up, including the Blogger outage. Scroll down for a report on that. More new posts will be added below this one. The essay below is the conclusion of the ninth part in a series by Takuan Seiyo.
Their numbers have grown exponentially over the past century and now stand at hundreds of thousands nationwide. Yet the dissident English colonists who framed the United States Constitution would have seen this modern 'police state' as alien to their foremost principles.
Under the criminal justice model known to the Framers, professional police officers were unknown.
At the time of the Constitution 's ratification, the office of sheriff was an appointed position, and constables were either elected or drafted from the community to serve without pay.
The courts of that period were venues for private litigation — whether civil or criminal — and the state was rarely a party. Professional police as we know them today originated in American cities during the second quarter of the nineteenth century, when municipal governments drafted citizens to maintain order.
The modern police-driven model of law enforcement helps sustain a playing field that is fundamentally uneven for different players upon it.
Modern police act as an army of assistants for state prosecutors and gather evidence solely with an eye toward the state's interests. Police seal off crime scenes from the purview of defense investigators, act as witnesses of convenience for the state in courts of law, and instigate a substantial amount of criminal activity under the guise of crime fighting.
Additionally, police enforce social class norms and act as tools of empowerment for favored interest groups to the disadvantage of others.
They conducted their investigations in the manner of neighborhood sleuths, dispersing throughout the community to question people about their knowledge of crimes.
In the early s, grand jurors were sometimes called upon to make arrests in cases where suspects were armed and in large numbers. And when called upon to enforce the laws of the state, citizens were to respond "not faintly and with lagging steps, but honestly and bravely and with whatever implements and facilities [were] convenient and at hand.
The duty of citizens to enforce the law was and is a constitutional one. Many early state constitutions purported to bind citizens into a universal obligation to perform law enforcement functions, yet evinced no mention of any state power to carry out those same functions.
By the s, only twelve percent of the public claimed to have ever personally acted to combat crime. The term "police" had a slightly different meaning at the time of the Founding.
Although a puritan cultural and legal ethic pervaded their society, Americans had great toleration for victimless misconduct. The night watch of early American cities concerned itself primarily with the danger of fire, and watchmen were often afraid to enter some of the most notorious neighborhoods of cities like Boston.Summarize the arguments for and against ethnicity-based jury nullification.
Include contemporary examples of ethnicity-based jury nullification. Conclude by choosing a position for or against ethnicity-based jury nullification and defend your decision.
I. Albion’s Seed by David Fischer is a history professor’s nine-hundred-page treatise on patterns of early immigration to the Eastern United States. It’s not light reading and not the sort of thing I would normally pick up.
I read it anyway on the advice of people who kept telling me it explains everything about America. Jury Nullification Paper. summarize arguments for and against ethnicity-based jury nullification. Within the paper, it will also include contemporary examples of ethnicity-based jury nullification, and my individual position for or against ethnicity-based nullification.
On the other hand, practicing ethnicity-based jury nullification may increase or damage further the racial relations which have been existing in our country. (Clapp, ). Widening the ethnic relation rift can lead to various moral implications and increase racial discrimination. Include contemporary examples of ethnicity-based jury nullification.
based jury nullification, while Dixon’s trial was perceived as a rejection of that practice. Part II outlines the history of jury nullification. Part III provides a brief description of The Wire. Part IV examines the fictional trial of Senator Clay Davis and the real-life trial of Sheila Dixon, and the reasons for their disparate results.
Race-Based Jury Nullification 1. Race-Based Jury NullificationCJA/August 15, Amberly Montoya, Curtis Sweed, David Green, Dennis Dewitt, Heather Feeley, & Michael Geist 2.