Pre-European Period Everything was water except a very small piece of ground. On this were the eagle and the coyote. Then the turtle swam to them. They sent it to dive for the earth at the bottom of the water.
Religion and Eighteenth-Century Revivalism by John Demos American colonial history belongs to what scholars call the early modern period. As such, it is part of a bridge between markedly different eras in the history of the western world. On its far side lies the long stretch we call the Middle Ages or the "medieval period"on its near one the rise of much we connect with modernity.
It holds the root of modern science epitomized by Sir Isaac Newtonof modern political thought Thomas Hobbes, John Lockeof modern capitalism the first large joint-stock corporations, including some which financed transatlantic "discovery"of modern state formation "nations," roughly as we understand the term todayof urbanization most especially, London and Paris, but also colonial cities such as New York, Philadelphia, and Bostonand even of what scholars now refer to as "proto-industrialization" the earliest factory-style modes of production.
Yet for the great mass of European—and American—humanity, the flavor of life at ground level remained highly traditional, including an almost exclusive reliance on subsistence agriculture; immersion in small-scale, face-to-face patterns of social life; and a code of behavior shaped by age-old religious beliefs and folk nostrums.
The colonization by Europeans of the two great American continents expressed both sides of the bridge. Its animating source was the clash and competition of European empires—a distinctly modern element.
Yet the motivation for such endeavor also involved extending Christianity to "heathen lands," and locating rich sources of gold and other precious metals—twin ideas of ancient provenance.
The Peopling of North America Portugal and Spain, having launched the so-called Age of Discovery at the end of the fifteenth century, laid claim to most of what is today Central and South America.
The British, and others from northern Europe, were latecomers to the imperial contest. As a result, their entry, beginning aroundwas channeled toward what was left—chiefly, the Caribbean islands and the cold, apparently hostile and frightening, coastline of North America.
At first, their plans mirrored those of the Spanish and Portuguese. For example, the Puritan founders of Massachusetts were strongly bent on converting native "savages"—hence their adoption of an official seal with the image of an unclothed Indian saying, "Come Over and Help Us.
Massachusetts—begun at Boston infollowing a beachhead made a decade before by the "Pilgrims" at Plymouth—retained a deeply religious orientation through most of the colonial era.
Its compact towns and villages were organized around largely autonomous "Congregational" churches; ministers played a key role in the local culture; and Protestant moral strictures framed many aspects of everyday life.
Farming was the focus of productive effort, and most of what was raised went straight to household kitchens and dinner tables. To be sure, after about a growing class of merchants would create new lines of private enterprise, some of them extremely far-flung, while attaining high levels of wealth and developing a genteel lifestyle to match.
This trend, which would not reach its apex until well into the eighteenth century, is nicely encapsulated in the phrase "from Puritan to Yankee. Having failed in their quest for gold, and also in their attempts to raise silk, citrus products, and other potentially lucrative cash crops, Virginians turned after to intensive tobacco-cultivation.
The same was true of those who founded Maryland, aroundas a refuge for Catholics fleeing the rising pressure of Puritanism in old England. This focus lay behind the distinctive settlement pattern of the Chesapeake colonies—where numerous, more or less isolated, "plantations" lay stretched out along rivers and ridgelines, with little in the way of village-style contact among them.
Tobacco exhausted soil fertility so rapidly that individual planters felt obliged to engross large quantities of land simply in order to maintain consistent levels of production; when, after a few years, one field would no longer bear a good crop, cultivation was moved to others.
Moreover, the same planters needed ready access to the ships that would carry their harvest to market; hence a host of little wharves and docks sprouted at intervals along the shoreline.
Both factors—crop and marketing requirements—worked to disperse settler populations across a broad expanse of coastal and interior land the Tidewater and the Piedmont, in local parlance. In the meantime, other European groups were joining the settlement process: Eventually, all except the small Spanish outposts would be absorbed into a single, English-controlled sphere of colonization.
There would be additional English settlements as well. Thus several new settlements spun off from Massachusetts: Connecticut ; Rhode Island ; and New Hampshire Further down the coast came New Jersey s ; Pennsylvania, founded by English Quakers but thereafter populated largely by German immigrants misnamed the "Pennsylvania Dutch" ; Delaware ; Carolinalater to be divided into two colonies, North and South ; and Georgia But the following century would bring an extraordinary shift toward multiethnic, multicultural diversity, as Germans, Scots-Irish, and, most especially, Africans arrived in increasingly large numbers.
By the time of the American Revolution, scarcely half the population could claim descent from "English stock.
This group—perhaps 10 million strong, continent-wide, when the first European settlers stepped ashore—would play an ambivalent role in colonization. On the one hand, Indians often served as helpers and teachers of the struggling, sometimes overmatched, newcomers.
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The Pilgrims landing on Plymouth Rock, December European nations came to the Americas to increase their wealth and broaden their influence over world affairs. The European colonization of the Americas describes the history of the settlement and establishment of control of the continents of the Americas by most of The post era is known as the period of the Columbian Exchange, a dramatically widespread exchange of The American Colonies and the British Empire, – (8 vol, This period of Guam’s history is known as the US Naval Era or the American colonial period from A second American colonial period was just after World War II, .
American colonial history belongs to what scholars call the early modern period. As such, it is part of a bridge between markedly different eras in the history of the western world.
On its far side lies the long stretch we call the Middle Ages (or the "medieval period"), on its near one the rise of. The Colonial Period "Heaven and earth never agreed better to frame a place for man's habitation." had a character that was distinctly American.
In contrast to the colonization policies of other countries and other periods, the emigration from England was not fostered by the government. Rather, the initiative was taken by unofficial.