The factors influencing sexual orientation and identity

Received Mar 9; Accepted Jun Copyright Burri et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are properly credited.

Why is someone attracted to another? Why are some attracted to males, others to females, and yet others primarily to children? While such questions might be conscientiously asked, the meaningfulness of the answers is fleeting. Fads may certainly be involved. At any particular time the relative value of each specific feature or trait varies.

Looks, intellect, wealth, family, religion, sense of humor, independence, and fertility, just to name a few, have all had their time in the limelight as salient in partner The factors influencing sexual orientation and identity.

Among the matters that seem to be taken for granted, however, is sexual orientation: Although there may be flexibility in some desires, only for a minority is there flexibility in sexual orientation.

For most individuals it is a fundamental prerequisite in choosing a partner. And this prime concern toward the sex of the intended partner is more than on the other features.

Where does this emphasis on sexual orientation come from? These are particularly important to provide a framework within which the evidencefor biological influences can be evaluated. These definitions are concomitant with the proposition that five main levels of sexual expression must l appreciated to get a proper sexual profile of any individual: Sexual orientation refers to the sex, male or female, of the erotic-love-affectional partners a person prefers.

The terms heterosexual, homosexual, and bisexual should best be adjectives, not nouns, and best applied to behaviors, not people. Such usage does not direct itself to the frequency or motive for any particular behavior, only its focus. The term homosexual is best reserved for those whose sexual activities are exclusively or almost exclusively with members of the same sex, the term heterosexual for those whose erotic companions are always or almost always with the opposite sex, and the term bisexual or ambisexual for those with sexual activities with members of either sex Diamond abab.

This is the way the terms will be used in this chapter.

The factors influencing sexual orientation and identity

It also typically follows with the gender role or behavior patterns society imposes or the individual prefers. But this is not always so. These distinctions are crucial, particularly in regard to transsexualism or other identity-gender pattern interactions.

In the real world, the transsexual, as are others, is typically labeled in terms of his or her sexual anatomy. Initially reared as society views them, transsexuals eventually plot their own sex-reversed life course. This aspect of life is separate from their sexual orientation since a transsexual may be homosexually or heterosexually inclined.

This use of the term is in an affiliative sense. It is as if one might identify as an American Indian or a Unitarian. The term core identity, coined by Stolleris used by some to indicate the central nature of this conviction.

Gender identity refers to how an individual sees himself or herself as fulfilling these societal expectations. The descriptive terms often used in this regard are relative to masculinity and femininity.

Patterns of behavior are phenotypical expressions. The terms boys and girls and men and women are social terms; the terms male and female are biological terms. It is obvious that a male can act as a girl or woman and a female can act as a boy or man.

Males, for instance, can live as women, and females can live as men; a male may be reared as a boy but grow to live as a woman.

It is common but often misleading to use sex and gender as synonyms. True, sex and gender are most often in concert, but they are not necessarily so. Ejaculation is another obvious distinction; it is a common feature of male orgasm but not of female orgasm. Yet another well-known difference is the wide range of orgasmic types among females, ranging from the frequent finding of women for whom orgasm is rare or nonexistent to those for whom multiple orgasm is common.

Among males either extreme is rare Kinsey et al. These differences obviously pertain to copulation, but many other mechanisms exist that are less related to coitus but very much related to sexual expression and childbearing.

Muscle mass, body and skeletal articulation, enzyme and endocrine production, and other physiological features and reflexes are additional distinctions.Therefore, we considered the main original studies and review articles regarding the neuroanatomical, genetic, and hormonal factors influencing sexual orientation and gender identity development.

A computerized search was performed to identify all relevant studies in . Hormonal Factors Influencing Gender Identity Biological factors play a huge role in shaping children's physical development. For instance, boys and girls are born with distinctive sexual organs, and become further differentiated when secondary sexual characteristics emerge upon puberty.

It is not a one-time event and personal, cultural, and social factors may influence how one expresses their sexual orientation and gender identity. 3 Unfortunately, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth experience various challenges because of how others respond to their sexual orientation or gender identity/expression.

Upbringing as girls destined to marry males had little influence on their adult orientation or sexual identity.

The factors influencing sexual orientation and identity

Instead of being fixed in the sex of rearing from birth to puberty, these males readily adopted their sex-appropriate gender, orientation, and identity. Internal factors such as physical appearance, personality, mental ability and sex would have an effect on a person’s identity.

Then there are the external factors such as family, class, religion, culture, occupation and nationality which would influence one’s identity. The study of the environment and sexual orientation is research into possible environmental influences on the development of human sexual orientation.

Some researchers distinguish environmental influences from hormonal influences, [1] while others include biological influences such as prenatal hormones as part of environmental influences.

How Choice And Emotion Can Influence Sexual Orientation